S>8 MY COUNTRY AND MY PEOPLE of several new canals and dams, and the building of the city of Peking under the Emperor Yunglo of the Ming Dynasty, who was also famous for his great Yunglo Library. These cycles comprise: (i) from the Ch'in Dynasty to the end of the Six Dynasties and the Tartar invasion (221 B.C.- A.D. 588) covering about 830 years; (2) from the Sui Dynasty to the Mongol invasion (589-1367), covering about 780 years; and (3) the modern cycle from the Ming Dynasty to the present time, a cycle which is yet uncompleted, but which has so far unfolded itself in the last six hundred years with amazing fidelity to the previous pattern. The peace of five hundred years which was granted us under the Ming and Manchu Dynasties seems to have run its due course, and with the Taiping Rebellion in the 1850*8, which marked the first big wave of internecine wars, we are on the crescendo of disorder and of internecine strife, which so far has lived up to its tradi- tion in the removal of the capital from Peking to Nanking in 1927. It is almost prophetic to note that a division between North and South and the subjugation of Northern China by a foreign race for the outstanding two hundred years have not yet come.1 The following diagrams are reproduced here partly for their intrinsic interest, and partly because they are the best short summary of China's political history of over two thousand years within the scope of a printed page. The curves represent the frequency of wars in China proper. Dr. Lee also mentions the fact that the same parallelism may be observed in the Chou Period preceding the first cycle in the diagram. The Chou Dynasty, which represented the first bloom of Chinese culture, lasted officially 900 years, beginning in the year 1122 B.C. After the first four hundred and fifty years of comparative peace and expansion inside China, the capital was moved east owing to pressure from the north-west in 770 B.C., from which date on we see increasing wars and strifes among the kingdoms, with the central government steadily 1A mixture of Chinese and Japanese blood, though very rare, has already produced two rather noteworthy Chinese, Koxinga, a good general, carrying on a losing campaign against the Manchus, and Su Manshu, a delicate poet in the beginning of the present century.